Jicarilla Apache

Pioneers Monument in Dulce
Monument to the Pioneers in Dulce

The Jicarilla Apache lived a semi-nomadic existence for several thousand years, slowly making their way southward from the area of the Bering Land Bridge since the time of the last Ice Age. In the beginning, the tribe was part of a greater group that included all of those now known as Apache and Navajo. As they migrated southward, the group began to split into smaller groups based on how peaceful or warlike the members of each might be. Generally, the Navajos were considered more peaceful, the Apaches more warlike. And among the Apaches there were similar differences with the Jicarillas being among the most peaceful.

Population pressures in the 1700's began to force them out of their more traditional territories in the southern and western plains. They had lived peacefully during most of that time, learning farming and pottery techniques from the Puebloan people with whom they traded and the Plains tribes taught them how to survive on the Great Plains.

The arrival of the Spanish and the westward push of the United States slowly forced them to move further and further into countryside not suited for their way of life. The mid-1800's were particularly bad for them as European diseases took a massive toll on their population.

Attempts to relocate the tribe onto a set reservation began in the 1850's but the lands being allocated to them were not suitable for agriculture. Finally President Grover Cleveland created the Jicarilla Apache Reservation by Executive Order in 1887. The piece of land the President set aside for the tribe held timber that they could sell, enough timber to finance the purchase of large tracts of land in the area more suitable for their traditional way of life.

In 1914 it was calculated that up to 90% of the tribe had contracted tuberculosis and in the 1920's it was feared the tribe might become extinct. After World War II oil and gas were discovered on the reservation and the royalties from that have made most of their lives more comfortable.

The Jicarilla have a long history of pottery making with some of their pots being found as far away as Kansas, Nebraska and the Black Hills of South Dakota. For hundreds of years they have gotten their clay from sacred sites near Taos and Picuris Pueblos.

Location of the Jicarilla Apache Reservation

For more info:
at Wikipedia
official website
Upper left photo courtesy of TheArmchairExplorer, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License


100 West San Francisco Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501
(505) 986-1234 - www.andreafisherpottery.com - All Rights Reserved

 
Micaceousgoldteapotwithfirecloudsandmatchinglid, Click or tap to see a larger version
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Sheldon Nunez Velarde, Jicarilla_Apache, Micaceousgoldteapotwithfirecloudsandmatchinglid
Sheldon Nunez Velarde
Jicarilla Apache
$ SOLD
jypi2l030
Micaceous gold teapot with fire clouds and matching lid
13 in L by 8.25 in W by 7 in H
Condition: Very good, small crack on rim
Signature: Jicarilla Apache Sheldon Nunez Velarde


100 West San Francisco Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501
(505) 986-1234 - www.andreafisherpottery.com - All Rights Reserved

Micaceous Clay Pottery

Golden micaceous prayer jar with fire clouds

Angie Yazzie
Taos
Micaceous black sculptural piece

Christine McHorse
Navajo
A lidded golden micaceous bean pot

Clarence Cruz
San Juan/Ohkay Owingeh

Micaceous clay pots are the only truly functional Pueblo pottery still being made. Some special micaceous pots can be used directly on the stove or in the oven for cooking. Some are also excellent for food storage. Some people say the best beans and chili they ever tasted were cooked in a micaceous bean pot. Whether you use them for cooking or storage or as additions to your collection of fine art, micaceous clay pots are a beautiful result of centuries of Pueblo pottery making.

Between Taos and Picuris Pueblos is US Hill. Somewhere on US Hill is a mica mine that has been in use for centuries. Excavations of ancient ruins and historic homesteads across the Southwest have found utensils and cooking pots that were made of this clay hundreds of years ago.

Not long ago, though, the making of micaceous pottery was a dying art. There were a couple potters at Taos and at Picuris still making utilitarian pieces but that was it. Then Lonnie Vigil felt the call, returned to Nambe Pueblo from Washington DC and learned to make the pottery he became famous for. His success brought others into the micaceous art marketplace.

Micaceous pots have a beautiful shimmer that comes from the high mica content in the clay. Mica is a composite mineral of aluminum and/or magnesium and various silicates. The Pueblos were using large sheets of translucent mica to make windows prior to the Spaniards arriving. It was the Spanish who brought a technique for making glass. There are eight mica mining areas in northern New Mexico with 54 mines spread among them. Most micaceous clay used in the making of modern Pueblo pottery comes from several different mines near Taos Pueblo.

As we understand it, potters Robert Vigil and Clarence Cruz have said there are two basic kinds of micaceous clay that most potters use. The first kind is extremely micaceous with mica in thick sheets. While the clay and the mica it contains can be broken down to make pottery, that same clay has to be used to form the entire final product. It can be coiled and scraped but that final product will always be thicker, heavier and rougher on the surface. This is the preferred micaceous clay for making utilitarian pottery and utensils. It is essentially waterproof and conducts heat evenly.

The second kind is the preferred micaceous clay for most non-functional fine art pieces. It has less of a mica content with smaller embedded pieces of mica. It is more easily broken down by the potters and more easily made into a slip to cover a base made of other clay. Even as a slip, the mica serves to bond and strengthen everything it touches. The finished product can be thinner and have a smoother surface. As a slip, it can also be used to paint over other colors of clay for added effect. However, these micaceous pots may be a bit more water resistant than other Pueblo pottery but they are not utilitarian and will not survive utilitarian use.

While all micaceous clay from the area of Taos turns golden when fired, it can also be turned black by firing in an oxygen reduction atmosphere. Black fire clouds are also a common element on golden micaceous pottery.

Mica is a relatively common component of clay, it's just not as visible in most. Potters at Hopi, Zuni and Acoma have produced mica-flecked pottery in other colors using finely powdered mica flakes. Some potters at San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Jemez and San Juan use micaceous slips to add sparkle to their pieces.

Potters from the Jicarilla Apache Nation collect their micaceous clay closer to home in the Jemez Mountains. The makeup of that clay is different and it fires to a less golden/orange color than does Taos clay. Some clay from the Picuris area fires less golden/orange, too. Christine McHorse, a Navajo potter who married into Taos Pueblo, uses various micaceous clays on her pieces depending on what the clay asks of her in the flow of her creating.

There is nothing in the makeup of a micaceous pot that would hinder a good sgraffito artist or light carver from doing her or his thing. There are some who have learned to successfully paint on a micaceous surface. The undecorated sparkly surface in concert with the beauty of simple shapes is a real testament to the artistry of the micaceous potter.


Double shouldered golden micaceous jar with a flared rim and fire clouds

Lonnie Vigil
Nambe
A micaceous black Corn Maiden figure wearing a tablita

Robert Vigil
Nambe
White seed pot with a sculpted Shifting Sands design surface with tiny flecks of mica and an inlaid stone

Preston Duwyenie
Hopi

100 West San Francisco Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501
(505) 986-1234 - www.andreafisherpottery.com - All Rights Reserved