Mary Ester Archuleta was born into Santa Clara Pueblo in 1942. She was the daughter of Alcario and Margaret Tafoya. Among her siblings were Jennie Trammel, Virginia Ebelacker, Lee Tafoya, Mela Youngblood, Toni Roller, LuAnn Tafoya and Shirley Cactus Blossom Tafoya. Like her siblings, she grew up learning to make pottery through watching and working with her parents as they made pottery. Then in the 1960s she married a man from San Juan Pueblo and moved to his home there.
The main pottery style at San Juan is known as Potsuwi'i and it's derived from styles found in an abandoned pueblo on San Juan land dated to 1450-1540. It represents the height of San Juan pottery achievements in pre-contact days. Mary was intrigued by the style enough to incorporate elements of it in her own Santa Clara-style pottery. That led to about 25 years as a top award earner at the Santa Fe Indian Market. Her efforts were pivotal in the revival of San Juan incised pottery in the 1970's.
Santa Clara Pueblo
Ruins at Puye Cliffs, Santa Clara Pueblo
Santa Clara Pueblo straddles the Rio Grande about 25 miles north of Santa Fe. Of all the pueblos, Santa Clara has the largest number of potters.
The ancestral roots of the Santa Clara people have been traced to the pueblos in the Mesa Verde region in southwestern Colorado. When that area began to get dry between about 1100 and 1300, some of the people migrated to the Chama River Valley and constructed Poshuouinge (about 3 miles south of what is now Abiquiu on the edge of the mesa above the Chama River). Eventually reaching two and three stories high with up to 700 rooms on the ground floor, Poshuouinge was inhabited from about 1375 to about 1475. Drought then again forced the people to move, some of them going to the area of Puye (on the eastern slopes of the Pajarito Plateau of the Jemez Mountains) and others to Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo, along the Rio Grande). Beginning around 1580, drought forced the residents of the Puye area to relocate closer to the Rio Grande and they founded what we now know as Santa Clara Pueblo on the west bank of the river, between San Juan and San Ildefonso Pueblos.
In 1598 Spanish colonists from nearby Yunque (the seat of Spanish government near San Juan Pueblo) brought the first missionaries to Santa Clara. That led to the first mission church being built around 1622. However, the Santa Clarans chafed under the weight of Spanish rule like the other pueblos did and were in the forefront of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. One pueblo resident, a mixed black and Tewa man named Domingo Naranjo, was one of the rebellion's ringleaders. When Don Diego de Vargas came back to the area in 1694, he found most of the Santa Clarans on top of nearby Black Mesa (with the people of San Ildefonso). An extended siege didn't subdue them so eventually, the two sides negotiated a treaty and the people returned to their pueblo. However, successive invasions and occupations by northern Europeans took their toll on the tribe over the next 250 years. The Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 almost wiped them out.
Today, Santa Clara Pueblo is home to as many as 2,600 people and they comprise probably the largest per capita number of artists of any North American tribe (estimates of the number of potters run as high as 1-in-4 residents).
Today's pottery from Santa Clara is typically either black or red. It is usually highly polished and designs might be deeply carved or etched ("sgraffito") into the pot's surface. The water serpent, ("avanyu"), is a traditional design motif of Santa Clara pottery. Another motif comes from the legend that a bear helped the people find water during a drought. The bear paw has appeared on their pottery ever since.
One of the reasons for the distinction this pueblo has received is because of the evolving artistry the potters have brought to the craft. Not only did this pueblo produce excellent black and redware, several notable innovations helped move pottery from the realm of utilitarian vessels into the domain of art. Different styles of polychrome redware emerged in the 1920's-1930's. In the early 1960's experiments with stone inlay, incising and double firing began. Modern potters have also extended the tradition with unusual shapes, slips and designs, illustrating what one Santa Clara potter said: "At Santa Clara, being non-traditional is the tradition." (This refers strictly to artistic expression; the method of creating pottery remains traditional).
Santa Clara Pueblo is home to a number of famous pottery families: Tafoya, Baca, Gutierrez, Naranjo, Suazo, Chavarria, Garcia, Vigil, Tapia - to name a few.
For more info: Santa Clara Pueblo at Wikipedia Pueblos of the Rio Grande, Daniel Gibson, ISBN-13:978-1-887896-26-9, Rio Nuevo Publishers, 2001
Upper photo courtesy of Einar Kvaran, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
Margaret Tafoya Family Tree
Disclaimer: This "family tree" is a best effort on our part to determine who the potters are in this family and arrange them in a generational order. The general information available is questionable so we have tried to show each of these diagrams to living members of each family to get their input and approval, too. This diagram is subject to change should we get better info.
Note: Sarafina (Gutierrez) Tafoya was the sister of Pasqualita Tani Gutierrez.
Sarafina Tafoya (1863-1949) & Geronimo Tafoya
Margaret Tafoya (1904-2001) & Alcario Tafoya (d. 1995)
Mary Ester Archuleta (1942-2010)
Jennie Trammel (1929-2010)
Karen Trammel Beloris
Virginia Ebelacker (1925-2001)
James Ebelacker (1960-) & Cynthia Ebelacker
Richard Ebelacker (1946-2010) & Yvonne Ortiz
Jerome Ebelacker & Dyan Esquibel
Lee Tafoya (1926-1996) & Betty Tafoya (Anglo)
Linda Tafoya (Oyenque)(Sanchez) (1962-)
Antonio Jose Oyenque
Jeremy Rio Oyenque
Maria Theresa Oyenque
Phyllis Bustos Tafoya
Mela Youngblood (1931-1990) & Walt Youngblood
Nancy Youngblood (1955-)
Nathan Youngblood (1954-)
Toni Roller (1935-)
Cliff Roller (1961-)
Deborah Morning Star Roller
Jeff Roller (1963-)
Susan Roller Whittington (1955-)
Tim Roller (1959-) & Clarissa Tafoya
LuAnn Tafoya (1938-) & Sostence Tapia
Michele Tapia Browning (1960-)
Daryl Duane Whitegeese (1964-) & Rosemary Hardy
Shirley Cactus Blossom Tafoya (1947-)
Christina Naranjo (1891-1980) & Jose Victor Naranjo (1895-1942)