Black on black jar with an avanyu and geometric design
 made by Maximiliana Montoya of San Ildefonso
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Maximiliana Montoya, San Ildefonso, Black on black jar with an avanyu and geometric design
Maximiliana Montoya
San Ildefonso
$ 625
zzsi0b181
Black on black jar with an avanyu and geometric design
3 1/4 in H by 4 3/4 in Dia
Condition: Very good
Signature: Anna

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Maximiliana Montoya

San Ildefonso
Geometric design around the shoulder and rim of a black on black gunmetal jar
 

Maximiliana Montoya (1885-1955), better known as Anna, was the eldest sister of Maria Martinez. Like Maria, Anna was making beautiful polychrome pottery in the early 1900's. However, Maria almost never painted anything so Anna painted for her until Maria married Julian and he took over the painting. When Maria and Julian started making black on black pottery, Anna was one of the early learners and adopters of the technique.

Anna's husband was Crescencio Martinez, one of the founders of the San Ildefonso School of watercolor artists. He painted many pieces for Anna and they were encouraged and supported by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett almost as much as he encouraged and supported Maria and Julian. After Crescencio passed away in the flu epidemic of 1918, Anna painted all her own pieces and soon became an accomplished painter in her own right.

Anna worked with Maria for many years, sometimes polishing pots, sometimes decorating them. Maria often commented on how "everyone bothered" Anna to "put design" on their pottery. Anna also developed her own distinctive forms and shapes, including an elegant "teardrop."

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San Ildefonso Pueblo

Sacred Black Mesa
Black Mesa at San Ildefonso Pueblo

San Ildefonso Pueblo is located about twenty miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, mostly on the eastern bank of the Rio Grande. Although their ancestry has been traced as far back as abandoned pueblos in the Mesa Verde area in southwestern Colorado, the most recent ancestral home of the people of San Ildefonso is in the area of Bandelier National Monument, the prehistoric villages of Tyuonyi, Otowi, Navawi and Tsankawi specifically. The area of Tsankawi abuts the reservation on its northwest side.

The San Ildefonso name was given to the village in 1617 when a mission church was established. Before then the village was called Powhoge, "where the water cuts through" (in Tewa). Today's pueblo was established as long ago as the 1300's and when the Spanish arrived in 1540 they estimated the village population at about 2,000.

That village mission was destroyed during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and when Don Diego de Vargas returned to reclaim the San Ildefonso area in 1694, he found virtually the entire tribe on top of nearby Black Mesa. After an extended siege the two sides negotiated a treaty and the people returned to their village. However, the next 250 years were not good for them. Finally, the Spanish swine flu pandemic of 1918 reduced the tribe's population to about 90. The tribe's population has increased to more than 600 today but the only economic activity available for most on the pueblo involves the creation of art in one form or another. The only other jobs are off-pueblo. San Ildefonso's population is small compared to neighboring Santa Clara Pueblo, but the pueblo maintains its own religious traditions and ceremonial feast days.

San Ildefonso has produced fine ceramic art since early pre-Columbian times. The pueblo is most known for being the home of the most famous Pueblo Indian potter, Maria Martinez. Many other excellent potters have produced quality pottery from this pueblo, too, among them: Blue Corn, Tonita and Juan Roybal, Dora Tse Pe and Rose Gonzales. Of course the descendants of Maria Martinez are still important pillars of San Ildefonso's pottery tradition. Maria's influence reached far and wide, so far and wide that even Juan Quezada, founder of the Mata Ortiz pottery renaissance in Chihuahua, Mexico, came to San Ildefonso to learn from her.

San Ildefonso Pueblo location map

For more info:
at Wikipedia
official website
Pueblos of the Rio Grande, by Daniel Gibson
Photo is in the public domain

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Maria Martinez Family Tree

Disclaimer: This "family tree" is a best effort on our part to determine who the potters are in this family and arrange them in a generational order. The general information available is questionable so we have tried to show each of these diagrams to living members of each family to get their input and approval, too. This diagram is subject to change should we get better info.


Santiago Peña (b. 1846) & Antonio Domingo Peña (b. 1841)
Family members who became potters:
  • Nicolasa Peña Montoya (1863-1904) & Juan Cruz Montoya
    • Tonita Martinez Roybal (1892-1945) & Alfredo Montoya
    • Isabel Montoya (1898-1996) & Benjamin Atencio
      • Angelita Atencio Sanchez (1927-1993) & Santiago Sanchez
        • Sandra Sanchez Chaparro
      • Gilbert Atencio (1930-1995)
      • Tony Atencio (b. 1928)
      • Helen Gutierrez (1935-1993) & Frank Gutierrez (Santa Clara)
        • Carol & James Gutierrez
        • Kathy Naranjo Gutierrez & Ernest J. Naranjo
        • Rose Gutierrez
    • Rayita Montoya
    • Santana Montoya & Antonio Vigil
      • Lupita Vigil Martinez (b. 1918) & Anselmo Martinez (1909-1965)
  • Reyes Peña (d. 1909) & Tomas Montoya (d. 1914)
    • Desideria Montoya (1889-1982)
    • Maria Montoya Martinez (1887-1980) & Julian Martinez (1884-1943)
      • Adam Martinez (1903-2000) and Santana Martinez (1909-2002)
        • George Martinez (b. 1943) & Pauline Martinez (Santa Clara, b. 1950)
        • Anita Martinez (d. 1992) & Pino Martinez
          • Barbara Tahn-Moo-Whe Gonzales (b. 1947) & Robert Gonzales
            • Aaron Gonzales (b. 1971)
            • Brandon Gonzales (b. 1983)
            • Cavan Gonzales (b. 1970)
            • Derek Gonzales (b. 1986)
          • Kathy Wan Povi Sanchez (b. 1950) & Gilbert Sanchez
            • Wayland Sanchez
          • Evelyn Than-Povi Garcia
          • Peter Pino
        • Viola Martinez/Sunset Cruz & Johnnie Cruz Sr.
          • Beverly Martinez (1960-1987)
          • Marvin Martinez (b. 1964) and Frances Martinez
          • Johnnie Cruz Jr. (b. 1975)
      • Popovi Da (1921-1971) & Anita Da
        • Tony Da (1940-2008)
    • Maximiliana Montoya (1885-1955) & Cresencio Martinez (1879-1918)
    • Juanita Vigil (1898-1933) & Romando Vigil (1902-1978)
      • Carmelita Vigil (1925-1999) & Nicholas Cata
        • Martha Apple Leaf (b. 1950)
          • Eric Fender (b. 1970)
        • Gloria Maxey (d. 1999)
          • Angelina Maxey (b. 1970)
          • Jessie Maxey (b. 1972)
        Carmelita Vigil (Dunlap) (1925-1999) & Carlos Dunlap (d. 1971)
        • Carlos Sunrise Dunlap (1958-1981)
        • Cynthia Star Flower Dunlap (b. 1959)
        • Jeannie Mountain Flower Dunlap (b. 1953)
        • Linda Dunlap (b. 1955)
      • Albert Vigil (1927-2009) & Josephine Cordova (1927-2001, Taos)
  • Philomena Peña & Juan Gonzales & Ramona Sanchez (Robert's mother)
    • Robert Gonzales & Rose (Cata) Gonzales (San Juan)
      • Tse-Pe & Dora Tse-Pe
        • Candace Tse-Pe
        • Gerri Tse-Pe
        • Irene Tse-Pe
      • Tse-Pe (1940-2000) & Jennifer Tse-Pe (second wife, Santa Clara)
    • Oqwa Pi (Abel Sanchez)(1899-1971) & Tomasena (Cata) Sanchez (1903-1985, Rose Gonzales' sister)
         
        • Russell Sanchez (b. 1966)
    • Louis Wo-Peen Gonzales & Juanita Wo-Peen Gonzales (1909-1988)
      • Adelphia Martinez
      • Lorenzo Gonzales (adopted) (1922-1995)
      • Blue Corn (Crucita Calabaza - Lorenzo's sister) (1921-1999)
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