The youngest sister of Greg and Tina Garcia, Virginia Garcia was born at Santa Clara Pueblo to Lydia Tafoya and Santiago Garcia (of San Juan Pueblo) in 1963. She grew up in a family of well-known potters from both Santa Clara and San Juan.
Like her siblings, Virginia eschewed the carving of clay pots and chose to create a more traditional style of Santa Clara pottery. Most of her creations are of classic shapes and often plain (except for traditional bear paw imprints on some of her pieces).
Virginia was also a student of the firing process and learned to cause a distinctive "plum" coloring through her firing technique.
Virginia started winning major awards for her work before she was 30 years old. In 1991 she earned a 1st Place ribbon for an undecorated wedding vase at Santa Fe Indian Market. In 1993 she earned a 2nd Place ribbon for another wedding vase at Santa Fe Indian Market. There were other awards, too, over the years, several from the annual Eight Northern Pueblos Arts and Crafts Show. Virginia also has had exhibitions of her work at Santa Fe Indian Market (1992-1999) and at the Eight Northern Pueblos Arts and Crafts Show in 1999.
Virginia is still alive but not producing pottery any more.
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Santa Clara Pueblo straddles the Rio Grande about 25 miles north of Santa Fe. Of all the pueblos, Santa Clara has the largest number of potters.
The ancestral roots of the Santa Clara people have been traced to the pueblos in the Mesa Verde region in southwestern Colorado. When that area began to get dry between about 1100 and 1300, some of the people migrated to the Chama River Valley and constructed Poshuouinge (about 3 miles south of what is now Abiquiu on the edge of the mesa above the Chama River). Eventually reaching two and three stories high with up to 700 rooms on the ground floor, Poshuouinge was inhabited from about 1375 to about 1475. Drought then again forced the people to move, some of them going to the area of Puye (on the eastern slopes of the Pajarito Plateau of the Jemez Mountains) and others to Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo, along the Rio Grande). Beginning around 1580, drought forced the residents of the Puye area to relocate closer to the Rio Grande and they founded what we now know as Santa Clara Pueblo on the west bank of the river, between San Juan and San Ildefonso Pueblos.
In 1598 Spanish colonists from nearby Yunque (the seat of Spanish government near San Juan Pueblo) brought the first missionaries to Santa Clara. That led to the first mission church being built around 1622. However, the Santa Clarans chafed under the weight of Spanish rule like the other pueblos did and were in the forefront of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. One pueblo resident, a mixed black and Tewa man named Domingo Naranjo, was one of the rebellion's ringleaders. When Don Diego de Vargas came back to the area in 1694, he found most of the Santa Clarans on top of nearby Black Mesa (with the people of San Ildefonso). An extended siege didn't subdue them so eventually, the two sides negotiated a treaty and the people returned to their pueblo. However, successive invasions and occupations by northern Europeans took their toll on the tribe over the next 250 years. The Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 almost wiped them out.
Today, Santa Clara Pueblo is home to as many as 2,600 people and they comprise probably the largest per capita number of artists of any North American tribe (estimates of the number of potters run as high as 1-in-4 residents).
Today's pottery from Santa Clara is typically either black or red. It is usually highly polished and designs might be deeply carved or etched ("sgraffito") into the pot's surface. The water serpent, ("avanyu"), is a traditional design motif of Santa Clara pottery. Another motif comes from the legend that a bear helped the people find water during a drought. The bear paw has appeared on their pottery ever since.
One of the reasons for the distinction this pueblo has received is because of the evolving artistry the potters have brought to the craft. Not only did this pueblo produce excellent black and redware, several notable innovations helped move pottery from the realm of utilitarian vessels into the domain of art. Different styles of polychrome redware emerged in the 1920's-1930's. In the early 1960's experiments with stone inlay, incising and double firing began. Modern potters have also extended the tradition with unusual shapes, slips and designs, illustrating what one Santa Clara potter said: "At Santa Clara, being non-traditional is the tradition." (This refers strictly to artistic expression; the method of creating pottery remains traditional).
Santa Clara Pueblo is home to a number of famous pottery families: Tafoya, Baca, Gutierrez, Naranjo, Suazo, Chavarria, Garcia, Vigil, Tapia - to name a few.
For more info: Santa Clara Pueblo at Wikipedia Pueblos of the Rio Grande, Daniel Gibson, ISBN-13:978-1-887896-26-9, Rio Nuevo Publishers, 2001
Upper photo courtesy of Einar Kvaran, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
Disclaimer: This "family tree" is a best effort on our part to determine who the potters are in this family and arrange them in a generational order. The general information available is questionable so we have tried to show each of these diagrams to living members of each family to get their input and approval, too. This diagram is subject to change should we get better info.
Leocadia Gutierrez & Thomas Dozier Their descendants who became potters:
Evangelio (Van) Gutierrez (1870-1956) & Lela (1874-1969) Their descendants who became potters:
Luther Gutierrez & Lupita Naranjo Their descendants who became potters:
Paul & Dorothy Gutierrez Their descendants who became potters:
Paul Gutierrez Jr. (b. 1966)
Pauline Gutierrez Her descendants who became potters:
Stephanie Naranjo (b. 1960)
Margaret Rose Gutierrez (b. 1936)
Severa Tafoya (1890-1973) and Cleto Tafoya Their descendants who became potters:
Angela Baca (1927-2014) & Antonio Baca Their descendants who became potters:
Alvin Baca (b. 1966)
Daryl Baca (b. 1961)
David Baca (b. 1951)
Leona Baca (b. 1958)
Epimenia (Mela) Tafoya (1920-1962) & Robert Nichols Their descendants who became potters:
Robert Cleto Nichols (b. 1961)
Lydia Tafoya (1923-1975) & Santiago Garcia Their descendants who became potters:
Greg Garcia (1961-2010)
Tina Garcia (1957-2005)
Virginia Garcia (b. 1963)
Maria (Mary Agnes) Tafoya (1925-1983) Her descendants who became potters:
Stephanie Tafoya Fuentes (b. 1963) & Lorenzo Fuentes
Alita Povijua (b. 1957)
Kathy Silva (b. 1947)
Wanda Tafoya Her descendants who became potters:
Eric Tafoya (b. 1969)
Tonita (b. 1930) & Paul Tafoya Their descendants who became potters:
Paul Speckled Rock (1952-2017) His descendants who became potters:
Adam Speckled Rock (b. 1972)
Kenneth Tafoya (b. 1953)
Ray Tafoya (1956-1995) His descendants who became potters: