Large brown jar with fire clouds and rope biyo Last month
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Rose Williams, Navajo, Large brown jar with fire clouds and rope biyo Last month
Artist: Rose Williams
Pueblo: Navajo
Dimensions: 16 in H by 11 3/4 in Dia
Item Number: lynvg7289
Price: $ 1700
Description: Large brown jar with fire clouds and rope biyo Last month
Condition: Very Good
Signature: RW

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Rose Williams

Rose Williams
Rope braid around the top of a brown jar

A member of the Reed People Clan, Rose Williams is recognized as the Matriarch of modern Navajo pottery and was long considered a living treasure. She was born in 1915 and passed away in March, 2015, at the age of 99.

A very traditional Navajo woman who spoke only a few words of English, she lived in a small frame house in Cow Springs, AZ (in the Tonalea area) for most of her life.

Rose learned the traditional art from her aunt, Grace Barlow. Her earliest pieces were made for typical Navajo uses: for hundreds of years Navajo clay-work was made specifically for domestic or ceremonial use only - and many Diné used her as a source for ceremonial pottery for many years. The majority of her pottery, though, was made for the marketplace. In the 1980s she began producing large cylindrical jars, some measuring more than 24" in height and 12" in diameter. Those quickly became a specialty for her as some were used for cooking and some for making drums.

In her later years various family members would help Rose with the collection of the clay and the polishing and pitching of her pots. They dug the brown-firing clay from a special place near Black Mesa, screened it to eliminate impurities and mixed it with sand for temper. Rose then used the hand-coil technique to build her pottery, perhaps adding a biyo' (a traditional decorative fillet around the rim) as her only nod to decoration. She usually worked in a brush shelter next to her house, firing in a cast-iron stove near the doorway. After firing she finished her pots inside and out with a coat of hot pine pitch.

Rose taught several generations of students the traditions of Navajo pottery making. Among her students were Faye Tso, Silas Claw, Louise Goodman and Lorena Bartlett. Her three daughters, Alice Williams Cling, Susie Williams Crank and Sue Williams, are recognized potters, as is her former daughter-in-law Lorraine Williams-Yazzie.

Although she herself never entered her work in any juried competitions or shows, dealers and collectors often entered her work for her. On that basis, Rose won awards at the Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial in Gallup, NM, at the Navajo Craftsman Exhibition at the Museum of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff and at the Heard Museum Guild Indian Art Fair and Market in Phoenix. Rose did not sign her work until she was well into her eighties.

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Navajo Nation

A view in Monument Valley
A view in Monument Valley

Historical and archaeological evidence points to the Navajo people entering the Southwest around 1400 AD. Their oral history still contains stories of that migration as the journey began in eastern Alaska and northwestern Canada centuries after their ancestors made the journey across the Bering Land Bridge from central Asia about 10,000 years ago. They were primarily hunter-gatherers until they came into contact with the Pueblo peoples and learned the basics of survival in this drier climate. Navajo oral history points to a long relationship between the Navajo and the Puebloans as they learned from and traded with each other.

When the Spanish first arrived, the Navajo occupied much of the area between the San Francisco Peaks (in Arizona), Hesperus Mountain and Blanca Peak (in Colorado) and Mount Taylor (in New Mexico). Spanish records indicate the Navajo traded bison meat, hides and stone to the Puebloans in exchange for maize and woven cotton goods. It was the Spanish who brought sheep to the New World and the Navajo took to sheep-herding quickly with sheep becoming a form of currency and sign of wealth.

When the Americans arrived in 1846, things began to change. The first fifteen years were marked by broken treaties and increasing raids and animosities on both sides. Finally, Brigadier General James H. Carleton ordered Colonel Kit Carson to round up the Navajo and transport them to Bosque Redondo in eastern New Mexico for internment. Carson succeeded only by engaging in a scorched earth campaign in which his troops swept through Navajo country killing anyone carrying a weapon and destroying any crops, livestock and dwellings they found. Facing starvation and death, the last band of Navajo surrendered at Canyon de Chelly.

Carson's campaign then led straight into "the Long Walk" to Bosque Redondo, a 300-mile trek during which at least 10% of the people died along the way. At Bosque Redondo they discovered the government had not allocated an adequate supply of water, livestock, provisions or firewood to support the 4,000-5,000 people interned there. The Army also did little to protect the Navajo from raids by other tribes or by Anglo citizens. The failure was such that the Federal government and the Navajo negotiated a treaty that allowed the people to return to a reservation that was only a shadow of their former territory little more than a couple years after they had left. However, succeeding years have seen additions to the reservation until today it is the largest Native American Reservation in the 48 contiguous states.

Large deposits of uranium were discovered on the Navajo Nation after World War II but the mining that followed ignored basic environmental protection for the workers, waterways and land. The Navajo have made claims of high rates of cancer and lung disease from the environmental contamination but the Federal government has yet to offer comprehensive compensation.

As a semi-nomadic tribe, the Navajo never made much pottery, preferring to use baskets for most storage purposes. They did produce a small amount of pottery for ceremonial uses. Once they were settled on a reservation, pottery began to make more sense. After 1950 Cow Springs brownware began to appear on the market. A trader named Bill Beaver was in Shonto back then, encouraging local potters to "make something different" and the market in the outside world responded positively to those different creations.

Rose Williams is considered the matriarch of modern Navajo pottery. She learned from Grace Barlow (her aunt) and passed her knowledge and experience on to her daughters and many others. Today, most Navajo pottery is heavy, thick-walled and coated with pine pitch (a sealer they also use on many of their baskets). Most Navajo pottery has little in the way of decoration but many pieces have a biyo' (a traditional decorative fillet) around the rim. Unlike Puebloan potters Navajo potters do not grind up old pot shards and use them for temper in creating new pottery. Their religion says those pot shards are filled with the spirits of their ancestors and forbids the reuse of the material. Similarly, Navajo religion limits Navajo potters to using primarily Navajo carpet designs in the decoration of their pots.

Navajo potters have also created a panoply of folk art, including unfired clay creations called "mud toys." Other Navajo potters, like Christine McHorse, have graduated into the mainstream of American Ceramic Art and easily compete among the finest ceramic artists on Earth.

Location map for the Navajo Nation

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Rose Williams Family Tree

Disclaimer: This "family tree" is a best effort on our part to determine who the potters are in this family and arrange them in a generational order. The general information available is questionable so we have tried to show each of these diagrams to living members of each family to get their input and approval, too. This diagram is subject to change should we get better info.

    Rose Williams
    Her descendants who became potters:
    • Alice Cling
    • Susie Crank
    • Sue Williams
    • Lorraine Williams-Yazzie
      • Stuart Roy (son-in-law)

Pottery Care & Consideration

  • The most obvious tip: Yes, the pots will break if you drop them!
  • Do not expose pottery to water (Inside or outside). Do not wipe with a damp cloth.
  • Dust pottery only with a soft, smooth cloth (no terry cloth or textured fabric). A very soft paintbrush (sable or camel) can be used.
  • Always use two hands to carry your pot: one on top and one on the bottom, or one hand on each side. Be careful with handles, they can be fragile. Do not grip or lift pots by the rim. Take care when wearing jewelry, rings can scratch the finish.
  • Place a piece of felt or cloth between the pot and the shelf to protect the signature.
  • Avoid exposing pottery to extreme temperature changes.

For those who live in "earthquake country" (also good for mischievous pets):

  • Weigh pots down with a small zip lock bag containing sand, glass marbles, rice, etc. Do not fill the pot more than one third full as you want them bottom heavy. Remember to remove the weight before moving.
  • Secure your shelves; make sure they are well attached to the walls. Shelf brackets should be of sufficient length and strength to support the weight of your pottery.
  • Prevent pots from sliding. Consider attaching a small wooden molding to the front of shelves. Line shelves with non-slip material (a thin sheet of rubber foam, Styrofoam sheeting, etc.)
  • If you need assistance with special problems, major cleaning (your grandchild spills ice cream on your pot), restoration or repair (the cat breaks a pot), or replacement (irreparable damage), please feel free to call us.

We hope these ideas help you maintain the beauty and value of your pottery for years of enjoyment.

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