Pottery by Candelaria Suazo, Click or tap to see a larger version
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Candelaria Suazo, Santa Clara, Black jar with sienna spots and sgraffito butterfly, hummingbird, dragonfly and geometric design New Arrival this month
Artist: Candelaria Suazo
Pueblo: Santa Clara
Dimensions: 1 3/4 in H by 1 3/4 in Dia
Item Number: xxscc7103m1
Price: $ 105
Description: Black jar with sienna spots and sgraffito butterfly, hummingbird, dragonfly and geometric design New Arrival this month
Condition: Excellent
Signature: Candelaria Suazo Santa Clara Pueblo
Date Created: 2017
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Candelaria Suazo


Santa Clara/
San Juan
Photo of Candelaria Suazo
Black jar by Candelaria Suazo
 

Candelaria Suazo was born to Joe and Santanita Suazo of Santa Clara and San Juan Pueblos. She has been making pottery since she was 20 years old. Among her teachers and those who still inspire her are her mother and her sisters: Margie Naranjo, Martha Haungooah, Mae Tapia and Shirley Duran. Relatives Dolores Curran and Geri Naranjo also had a great influence on her work over the years.

Making pueblo pottery is a complex and time consuming occupation. The most critical moments are mixing the clay at the beginning preparations and in the last step, which is firing the finished pot outdoors. Candelaria digs and mixes her own clay. She uses a series of screens to sift and remove the impurities. Each pot is coiled and shaped by hand, not thrown on a wheel. No glazes are used, only a stone to polish the piece. The pot is fired outdoors in a traditional firing pit using "cow patties" and dry horse manure. To obtain a black finish, a reduction process is employed where the pots are smothered with a mix of ashes and pulverized manure.

Candelaria tells us her favorite shapes to work with include miniature bowls and vases. The sgraffito (etched) style that she specializes in is accomplished after the “smothering” process that turns the pottery black. A figure such as a finely etched “avanyu” (water serpent) will surround the entire pot. Often kiva steps and cloud designs will complete the work. Other favored designs are butterflies and/or hummingbirds that are intricately carved on opposite sides of a piece. She also uses a special technique that highlights part of a pot by reheating a section of the pot and changing its color.

Candelaria says, “I enjoy making pottery because I want to keep up the traditional art of pottery making that the pueblo of Santa Clara is known for.” She exhibits at the Eight Northern Pueblos Arts and Crafts Show and has won several ribbons for 1st, 2nd and 3rd Places. She signs her work: “Candelaria Suazo, Santa Clara Pueblo.”


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Santa Clara Pueblo

The Puye Cliff Ruins
Ruins at Puye Cliffs, Santa Clara Pueblo

Santa Clara Pueblo straddles the Rio Grande about 25 miles north of Santa Fe. Of all the pueblos, Santa Clara has the largest number of potters.

The ancestral roots of the Santa Clara people have been traced to the pueblos in the Mesa Verde region in southwestern Colorado. When that area began to get dry between about 1100 and 1300, some of the people migrated to the Chama River Valley and constructed Poshuouinge (about 3 miles south of what is now Abiquiu on the edge of the mesa above the Chama River). Eventually reaching two and three stories high with up to 700 rooms on the ground floor, Poshuouinge was inhabited from about 1375 to about 1475. Drought then again forced the people to move, some of them going to the area of Puye (on the eastern slopes of the Pajarito Plateau of the Jemez Mountains) and others to Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo, along the Rio Grande). Beginning around 1580, drought forced the residents of the Puye area to relocate closer to the Rio Grande and they founded what we now know as Santa Clara Pueblo on the west bank of the river, between San Juan and San Ildefonso Pueblos.

In 1598 Spanish colonists from nearby Yunque (the seat of Spanish government near San Juan Pueblo) brought the first missionaries to Santa Clara. That led to the first mission church being built around 1622. However, the Santa Clarans chafed under the weight of Spanish rule like the other pueblos did and were in the forefront of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. One pueblo resident, a mixed black and Tewa man named Domingo Naranjo, was one of the rebellion's ringleaders. When Don Diego de Vargas came back to the area in 1694, he found most of the Santa Clarans on top of nearby Black Mesa (with the people of San Ildefonso). An extended siege didn't subdue them so eventually, the two sides negotiated a treaty and the people returned to their pueblo. However, successive invasions and occupations by northern Europeans took their toll on the tribe over the next 250 years. The Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 almost wiped them out.

Today, Santa Clara Pueblo is home to as many as 2,600 people and they comprise probably the largest per capita number of artists of any North American tribe (estimates of the number of potters run as high as 1-in-4 residents).

Today's pottery from Santa Clara is typically either black or red. It is usually highly polished and designs might be deeply carved or etched ("sgraffito") into the pot's surface. The water serpent, ("avanyu"), is a traditional design motif of Santa Clara pottery. Another motif comes from the legend that a bear helped the people find water during a drought. The bear paw has appeared on their pottery ever since.

One of the reasons for the distinction this pueblo has received is because of the evolving artistry the potters have brought to the craft. Not only did this pueblo produce excellent black and redware, several notable innovations helped move pottery from the realm of utilitarian vessels into the domain of art. Different styles of polychrome redware emerged in the 1920's-1930's. In the early 1960's experiments with stone inlay, incising and double firing began. Modern potters have also extended the tradition with unusual shapes, slips and designs, illustrating what one Santa Clara potter said: "At Santa Clara, being non-traditional is the tradition." (This refers strictly to artistic expression; the method of creating pottery remains traditional).

Santa Clara Pueblo is home to a number of famous pottery families: Tafoya, Baca, Gutierrez, Naranjo, Suazo, Chavarria, Garcia, Vigil, Tapia - to name a few.

Harvest, Santa Clara Pueblo c. 1912
Courtesy Museum of New Mexico Neg. No. 4128
Santa Clara Pueblo c. 1920
Courtesy Museum of New Mexico Neg. No. 4214


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Pottery Care & Consideration

  • The most obvious tip: Yes, the pots will break if you drop them!
  • Do not expose pottery to water (Inside or outside). Do not wipe with a damp cloth.
  • Dust pottery only with a soft, smooth cloth (no terry cloth or textured fabric). A very soft paintbrush (sable or camel) can be used.
  • Always use two hands to carry your pot: one on top and one on the bottom, or one hand on each side. Be careful with handles, they can be fragile. Do not grip or lift pots by the rim. Take care when wearing jewelry, rings can scratch the finish.
  • Place a piece of felt or cloth between the pot and the shelf to protect the signature.
  • Avoid exposing pottery to extreme temperature changes.

For those who live in "earthquake country" (also good for mischievous pets):

  • Weigh pots down with a small zip lock bag containing sand, glass marbles, rice, etc. Do not fill the pot more than one third full as you want them bottom heavy. Remember to remove the weight before moving.
  • Secure your shelves; make sure they are well attached to the walls. Shelf brackets should be of sufficient length and strength to support the weight of your pottery.
  • Prevent pots from sliding. Consider attaching a small wooden molding to the front of shelves. Line shelves with non-slip material (a thin sheet of rubber foam, Styrofoam sheeting, etc.)
  • If you need assistance with special problems, major cleaning (your grandchild spills ice cream on your pot), restoration or repair (the cat breaks a pot), or replacement (irreparable damage), please feel free to call us.

We hope these ideas help you maintain the beauty and value of your pottery for years of enjoyment.

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