Pottery by Robert Patricio, Click or tap to see a larger version
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Robert Patricio, Acoma, Large polychrome storage jar with geometric design
Artist: Robert Patricio
Pueblo: Acoma
Dimensions: 11 1/2 in H by 13 1/4 in Dia
Item Number: xxacm5210m1
Price: $ 2500
Description: Large polychrome storage jar with geometric design
Condition: Excellent
Signature: Acoma, N.M. R. Patricio
Date Created: 2015
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Robert Patricio


Acoma
Robert Patricio
Geometric design on a polychrome jar
 

Robert Patricio was born to Doris and Patrick Patricio Sr. of Acoma Pueblo in June, 1976. He says he was about nine years old when he began learning the traditional methods of creating hand coiled pottery. At first he learned by watching his great-grandmother Marie Z. Chino, then he got his hands dirty working with his mother. Today he counts his mother, great-grandmother and aunt Grace Chino as his main inspirations.

Now, more than 30 years after he began, Robert specializes in producing hand coiled and hand painted pottery. After collecting the various clays, slips, and natural vegetation, Robert begins the traditional process. First, he prepares the clay by sifting for impurities and then hand mixing with water. Next, he constructs his vessels with snake-like coils. Then these are set out to dry and later scraped to a smooth finish. While the pottery is drying he boils and strains all the natural vegetation and creates his colors from plants such as wild spinach (bee-weed) and wildflowers. The process is completed by laying out the designs, painting the designs with his clay slips and then firing the pots.

The designs on his pottery are usually interpreted from ancient pottery shards found on the lands of Acoma Pueblo. His polychrome and his black and white designs include geometric, fertility, Tularosa spirals, parrots, and kiva step patterns. Robert has participated in shows at the New Mexico State Fair (winning 1st Place, 2nd Place and Honorable Mention ribbons), Heard Museum in Phoenix (earning a 2nd Place ribbon), Eight Northern Pueblos Arts and Crafts Show in Espanola, and the Santa Fe Indian Market where he has taken home 1st, 2nd and 3rd Place ribbons. In 2010 he also earned the "Best in Pottery" ribbon at the Santa Fe Indian Market.

His favorite shapes to make are tall jars and his favorite designs to paint are black-and-white rainbirds. Robert signs his pottery as: R.M. Patricio, Acoma, NM or R. & M. Patricio, Acoma, NM. - the "M" being his wife, Melanie.

Robert is exceedingly proud of his six beautiful daughters. Three of them (Kylie, Felisha and Juana) have already begun to follow in their father’s footsteps by creating and selling their own pots and by earning ribbons on their own.


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Acoma Pueblo

Acoma from the air
Sky City

According to Acoma oral history, the sacred twins led the ancestors to "Ako," a magical mesa composed mostly of white rock, to be their home. Acoma Pueblo is called "Sky City" because of its position atop the mesa. Acoma lays claim to being the oldest continuously inhabited community in the U.S. It is located about 60 miles west of Albuquerque.

While the people of Acoma have an oral tradition that says they've been living in the same area for more than 2,000 years, archaeologists feel more that the present pueblo was established near the end of the major migrations in the 1300's. The location is essentially on the boundary between the Mogollon (Mimbres), Hohokam (Salado) and Anasazi (Ancestral Pueblo) cultures. Each of those cultures has had an impact on the styles and designs of Acoma pottery, especially since modern potters have been getting the inspiration for many of their designs from pot shards they have found while walking on pueblo lands.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado ascended the cliff to visit Acoma in 1540. He afterward wrote that he "repented having gone up to the place." But the Spanish came back later and kept coming back. By 1598 relations between the Spanish and the Acoma had deteriorated to the point where a group of Acoma warriors attacked a group of Spanish soldiers, killing 11 of them. Don Juan de Oñaté retaliated by attacking the pueblo, burning most of it and killing more than 600 people. Another 500 people were imprisoned by the Spanish, males between the ages of 12 and 25 were sold into slavery and 24 men over the age of 25 had their right foot amputated. Many of the women over the age of 12 were also forced into slavery and were parceled out among Catholic convents in Mexico City. Two Hopi men were also captured at Acoma and, after having one hand cut off, they were released and sent home to spread the word about Spain's resolve to subjugate the inhabitants of Nuevo Mexico.

When word of the massacre (and the punishments meted out after) got back to King Philip in Spain, he banished Don Juan de Oñaté from Nuevo Mexico. Some Acomas were able to escape the Spanish attack and returned to the mesa top in 1599 to begin rebuilding.

In 1620 a Royal Decree was issued which established civil offices in each pueblo and Acoma had its first governor appointed. By 1680, the situation between the pueblos and the Spanish had deteriorated again to the point where the Acomas were extremely willing participants in the 1680 Pueblo Revolt.

After the Spanish had retreated back to Mexico, refugees from other pueblos began to arrive at Acoma, fearing the eventual Spanish return and probable reprisals. That strained the resources of Acoma until a few years later, most of those refugees relocated to found Laguna and make peace with the Spanish as soon as the Spanish reappear in the region.

Over the next 200 years, Acoma suffered from breakouts of smallpox and other European diseases to which they had no immunity. At times they would side with the Spanish against nomadic raiders from the Ute, Apache and Comanche tribes. Eventually New Mexico changed hands, then the railroads arrived and Acoma became dependent on goods made in the outside world.

For many years the villagers were content on the mesa. Now most live in villages on the valley floor where water, electricity and other necessities are easily available while a few families still make their permanent home on the mesa top. The old pueblo is used almost exclusively these days for ceremonial celebrations.

Acoma's dense, slate-like clay, allows the pottery to be thin, lightweight and durable. After the pot is formed, it is painted with a slip of white clay. Black and red design motifs are added using mineral and plant derived paints. Fine lines, geometrics, parrots and old Mimbres designs are commonly seen motifs. The traditional paintbrush for Acoma potters is made from the yucca plant.

Historically Acoma was known for large, thin-walled "ollas", jars used for storage and water. With the arrival of the railroad and tourists in the 1880's, Acoma potters adapted the size, shapes and styles of their pots in order to appeal to the new buyers.

Acoma Pueblo is home to noted potters of the Lewis and Chino families, as well as many others. Acoma potters felt it was an inappropriate display of ego to put their signature on a pot up into the mid-1960's. The 1960's is also a time when the primary white clay vein mined by the Acomas passed through a layer of widely distributed impurities, impurities that passed through the pottery making process and appeared only in the firing. Or worse yet, sometimes well after firing. The clay problem was so bad it affected virtually every potter in the pueblo and every pot they made. So many pots spalled that even the best potters sold them anyway, often signed. Thankfully, by the late 1960's they had dug through that layer of clay and into a layer without the problem.

Acoma Pueblo c. 1923

Acoma Pueblo c. 1932

Map showing location of Acoma Pueblo


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Pottery Care & Consideration

  • The most obvious tip: Yes, the pots will break if you drop them!
  • Do not expose pottery to water (Inside or outside). Do not wipe with a damp cloth.
  • Dust pottery only with a soft, smooth cloth (no terry cloth or textured fabric). A very soft paintbrush (sable or camel) can be used.
  • Always use two hands to carry your pot: one on top and one on the bottom, or one hand on each side. Be careful with handles, they can be fragile. Do not grip or lift pots by the rim. Take care when wearing jewelry, rings can scratch the finish.
  • Place a piece of felt or cloth between the pot and the shelf to protect the signature.
  • Avoid exposing pottery to extreme temperature changes.

For those who live in "earthquake country" (also good for mischievous pets):

  • Weigh pots down with a small zip lock bag containing sand, glass marbles, rice, etc. Do not fill the pot more than one third full as you want them bottom heavy. Remember to remove the weight before moving.
  • Secure your shelves; make sure they are well attached to the walls. Shelf brackets should be of sufficient length and strength to support the weight of your pottery.
  • Prevent pots from sliding. Consider attaching a small wooden molding to the front of shelves. Line shelves with non-slip material (a thin sheet of rubber foam, Styrofoam sheeting, etc.)
  • If you need assistance with special problems, major cleaning (your grandchild spills ice cream on your pot), restoration or repair (the cat breaks a pot), or replacement (irreparable damage), please feel free to call us.

We hope these ideas help you maintain the beauty and value of your pottery for years of enjoyment.

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